Dr. Rüdiger Grunwald


Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short-Pulse Spectroscopy
Division C - Nonlinear Processes in condensed matter, 
Department C2 -Solid state light sources
Project 1-01 Ultrafast nonlinear optics and few cycle pulses &
Project 3-02 Solids and Nanostructures

Curriculum vitae


  • 1977-1982 study of physics at Humboldt-University Berlin (HUB)
  • 1982 Diploma thesis (time-resoved spectroscopy of N2 laser plasma)
  • 1986 PhD thesis at HUB (UV multiple photon processes in aromatic and metal-organic molecules; radical spectroscopy)

Professional career:

  • 1982-1991 Central Institute for Optics and Spectroscopy of the Academy of Sciences (Berlin),  Leader of a Junior Research Group
  • 1991-1998 Project Manager at the Society for the Promotion of Applied Optics, Optoelectronics, Quantum Electronics and Spectroscopy Inc. Berlin (GOS)
  • 1993-1997 Light & Art Company (M.D.) (Berlin), Collaboration with Lumenyte  Corp. (Orange County, USA)
  • Since 1998 with Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short-Pulse Spectroscopy Berlin (MBI)
  • Visiting professor at University Barcelona in May 2010


  • 1981 German Physical Society (DPG)
  • 1990 Society for the Promotion of Applied Optics, Optoelectronics, Quantum Electronics and Spectroscopy, Berlin (GOS), Founder Member
  • 1995 WISTA Solar, Founder member
  • 1995 Optical Society of America (OSA)
  • 1997 European Optical Society (EOS)
  • 2008 International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE)

Editorial Advisory Boards

  • 2009 The Open Optics Journal (Bentham Open)
  • 2015 Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)
  • 2018 Applied Sciences, Online Journal (MDPI, Basel) 


  • Summer School Berlin 2008, International Photonics Cluster
  • 2011 IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim, Sydney, Australia (Information Optics, Optical Storage & Displays)
  • 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco (Complex Light and Optical Forces)

International Advisory Boards

Centre for Nonlinear Studies (CENS), Estonian Centre of Excellence in Research, Tallinn University of Technology (TUT)

Awards and Honors

1982 Heinrich Gustav Magnus Award (Humboldt University, Berlin)
2011 Senior Member of the OSA, the Optical Society of America
2012 Best Student's Paper Award (ISOT conference, Paris)
2014 Outstanding Reviewer, Applied Surface Science (Elsevier)
Senior Member of the SPIE, the International Society for Optics and Photonics
2019 Fellow
of the SPIE, the International Society for Optics and Photonics

Main topics:

  • 1982-1986 Laser development (N2, Excimer, CO2), spectroscopic diagnostics of free radicals (C2, CN) and free atoms (molybdenum), multiple photon dissociation of organic and metal-organic molecules (naphthalene, quinoline, metal carbonyls), LCVD (carbon, molybdenum)
  • 1987-1989 TEA CO2 laser development (design of unstable resonators, fabrication of graded reflectance mirrors, simulation of temporal evolution, chirp reduction)
  • 1990-1991 Interferometry of laser diodes (current-dependent astigmatism) with radial-shear interferometer
  • 1992-1995 High power fiber bundle lasers, Nd:glass laser with graded reflectance mirrors and Talbot resonators, fabrication of micro-mirrors
  • 1994-1995 Measuring techniques for thin-film components (interferometry, micro-profilometry)
  • 1995-1998 Thin film microlens arrays for image sensing, processing and micro-lasers; fiber sensors; micro-mirror arrays; optical image pre-processing (for Siemens)
  • 1998-1999 Resonance-enhanced SHG of laser diode MOPA with extra-cavity high-Q ring-resonator
  • 1999-2002 Hybrid micro-optical components for high-power diode laser collimation (micro-gradient AR layers, SAC microlenses), inspection of  diode laser facets with high-resolution micro-reflectometry, angular dependent micro-reflectometry, pseudo near field and spatially resolved polarization of diode laser bars
  • 2001-2005 Nonlinear frequency conversion in nanocrystalline ZnO films for the autocorrelation of extremely short pulses
  • 2001-2008 Beam shaping and diagnostics of fs-lasers with thin-film micro-optics (generation of ultrafast nondiffractive beam arrays, Bessel X-waves, self-reconstruction of X-waves in space and time, low-dispersion hybrid refractive-reflective beam shapers) 
  • 2005-2009 Diagnostics of few-cycle wavepackets (spatially resolved single-shot autocorrelation with matrix processors, collinear wavefront autocorrelation with spatio-temporal and angular resolution, wavefront sensing of highly divergent beams with axicon-based Shack-Hartmann sensors, reflective setups for autocorrelation and wavefront sensing)
  • 2003-2006 VUV beam array shaping and multichannel materials processing with ultraflat nanolayer microaxicons and cylinder microlenses
  • 2003-2009 Single-maximum  nondiffracting  beams ("needle beams") by self-apodizing ultrathin and composite layer structures
  • since 2005 Generation of slow-axial-decay single-maximum femtosecond localized wavepackets by self-apodizing truncation; spectral transfer analysis and spectral mapping of few-cycle pulses, improved SHG efficiency with optimized ZnO nanostructures, shaping of femtosecond "needle beams" of unprecedented Rayleigh lengths  (i.e. wavepackets with paths well approximating rays), generation of nondiffracting and self-reconstructing images by combining microaxicon arrays and needle beams
  • since 2006 Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in dielectric nonlinear nanocrystalline layers and bulk materials, spectral and spatial beam analyis with higher-order statistical moments, spectral information encoding, temporal beam shaping with Talbot effect, Montgomery effect and microoptical retroreflector arrays
  • since 2007 Shaping of ultrashort pulses and programmable nondiffracting beams with LCoS spatial light modulators, phase shift autocorrelation with pulsed Bessel beams, nondiffracting images
  • 2007-2010 Quantum interference experiments with modified Young's double slit arrangements and single photon detection using EMCCD technique
  • since 2009 Nonlinear spectroscopy of nanorods and nanolayers under ultrashort-pulse excitation, few-cycle orbital momentum beams
  • since 2011 Ultrashort-pulsed plasmonics, few-cycle hollow beams, highly localized wavepackets, complex adaptive nondiffracting images, reconfigurable nondiffracting Shack-Hartmann sensor for two-dimensional pulse characterization and vortex beam analysis
  • since 2012 Temporal self-reconstruction of nondiffracting beams, temporal mapping with attosecond resolution
  • since 2011 Enhanced nonlinear processes in tailored nanomaterials, nonlinear mechanisms of sub-wavelength LIPSS via multiphoton excitation of plasmons, generation of structured and nondiffracting ultrashort wavepackets with MEMS axicons
  • since 2012 generation of few-cycle vortex beams with MEMS and detection of those
  • since 2012 relationship between surface plasmon-polaritons and deep sub-wavelength ripple formation in dielectrics, laser-induced periodic structures in metals, nanostructure generation with MEMS axicons
  • since 2013 surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and photocatalysis with fs-laser nanostructured surfaces, iFROG measurements at nanorods
  • fundamentals of the propagation of nondiffracting beams
  • 2013-2018 Ultrafast singular optics, vortex pulses with tunable topological charge, adaptive autocorrelation and adaptive self-reconstruction with novel types of MEMS axicons

Project leadership:

  • Laser-induced selective excitation of molecules: UV- and IR-multiphoton dissociation of organic and metal-organic molecules and LCVD of  carbon and metal layers (1982-1986)
  • Resonator optics for frequency stabilized TEA-CO2 lasers for LIDAR (1986-1990)
  • Radial shear interferometer for the measurement of laser diode astigmatism (sponsored by WF Berlin, 1990)
  • Development of methods for the characterization of apodizing thin-film components (GEWIPLAN, BMWi 1994)
  • Microlens arrays for the coupling of laserdiode arrays and fiber bundles (GEWIPLAN, BMWi 1995)
  • Investigations for optical pre-processing in automated mail-recognition systems (sponsored by Siemens, Erlangen, 1996)
  • Beam shaping of pulses UV- and IR-lasers with new thin-film components (GEWIPLAN, BMWi, 1995-1997)
  • Microlens arrays for technical viewing systems (BMBF, 1995-1997)
  • Structured sensor fibers (GEWIPLAN, BMWi, 1997-1998)
  • UV generation by direct conversion of the radiation from a laser diode MOPA in a resonance enhanced external resonator (BMBF, 1998-1999)
  • CHOCLAB II (Instruments and Standard Test Procedures for Laser beam and Optics Characterization), International Project, Eureka no. EU 2359
  • Microoptical thin-film components for the improvement of the collimation efficiency of diode laser arrays (BMBF 1999-2002)
  • Realization and characterization of nonlinear-optical active glass-crystal composites on the basis of semiconductor coated transparent glasses of optimized local structure (joint DFG-project with Otto-Schott-Institute FSU Jena, 2000-2005)
  • Spatio-temporal beam shaping of femtosecond lasers with microoptical arrays (BMBF / WTZ, German Canadian Collaboration Project with Laval University Quebec, Canada, 2001-2004)
  • Spatially resolved nonlinear autocorrelation of ultrashort laser pulses with microoptical matrixprocessors (DFG-project in collaboration with BIAS, Bremen, 2005-2009)
  • Generation of curved nondiffractive beams for 3D ultrashort-pulse laser microstructuring (BMBF / WTZ, German Canadian Collaboration Project with Laval University Quebec and INRS Montreal, Canada, 2006)
  • Ultrashort-pulse laser-induced nanostructuring of nonlinear materials (UP-LINN) (DFG-project in collaboration with Otto-Schott-Institute FSU Jena, 2009-2015)
  • Adaptive wavefront sensor of high dynamics for ultrashort-pulse lasers (ADWELL) (DFG transfer project, collaboration with metrolux GmbH, Göttingen. 2009-2013)
  • Micromechanical axicons for the adaptive shaping of ultrashort wavepackets (MAXWELL) (DFG-project in collaboration with University Freiburg, IMTEK: MAXWELL I, 2012-2015, MAXWELL II, 2015-2018)
  • Nonlinear excitation of tailored nanostructures (NEXT) (Laserlab Europe project in 7FP, 2011-2012, Host)
  • Ultrafast and correlated carrier energetic and dynamics in highly excited nanomaterials (UCORN) (Laserlab Europe project in 7FP, 2013, Host)
  • Femtosecond field-induced bandgap modification in dielectric materials (FIBMOD) (Laserlab Europe project in 7FP, 2015, Host)
  • Orbital momentum excitation of nanomaterials (OMEN) (Laserlab Europe project, 2019, Host)

International collaboration:

  • COPL, Laval University Quebec, Canada, Prof. Michel Piché (German Canadian Collaboration Project since 2001, working visits at COPL in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006)
  • University Toronto, Canada, Prof. Peter Herman (working visits in 2002 and 2003)
  • Dublin City University, Rep. Ireland, Prof. Enda McGlynn (LASERLAB Projects 2011-2015)
  • West Chester University, Department of Chemistry, USA, Prof. Kurt Kolasinski
  • University Barcelona, Department of Electronics, Spain, Prof. Frank Güell (LASERLAB Projects 2011-2015)
  • University Kyoto, Prof. Shuji Sakabe (BMBF Project in 2011)
  • ORC, University Southampton, Prof. Peter Kazansky (working visits of students 2012)
  • School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, Prof. Susanta Kumar Das


Peer reviewed journals:


  • P. Satapathy, A. Pfuch, R. Grunwald, and S. K. Das, Enhancement of photocatalytic activity by femtosecond-laser induced periodic surface structures, Catalysts (2019), submitted. NEW!  

  • M. Liebmann, A. Treffer, M. Bock, T. Seiler, J. Jahns, T. Elsaesser, and R. Grunwald, Self-imaging of tailored vortex pulse arrays and spectral Gouy rotation echoes, Opt. Lett. (2018), accepted. NEW!  Talbot self-imaging of spectral Gouy rotation
  • J. Hyyti, M. Perestjuk, F. Mahler, R. Grunwald, F. Güell, C. Gray, E. McGlynn, and G. Steinmeyer, Field Enhancement of Multiphoton Induced Luminescence Processes in ZnO Nanorods, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51, 105306 (2018), (11 pp).i>>> Nonlinear properties of ZnO nanostructures <<<   NEW!  
  • M. Liebmann, A. Treffer, M. Bock, T. Elsaesser, and R. Grunwald, Spectral anomalies and Gouy rotation around the singularity of ultrashort vortex pulses, Opt. Express 25, 26076-26088 (2017). >>> Gouy rotation of ultrashort pulses in spectral domain << NEW! 
  • M. Bock, A. Treffer, and R. Grunwald, Nondiffracting self-imaging of ultrashort wavepackets, Opt. Lett. 42, 2374-2377 (2017). NEW!  >>> Spatio-temporal self-imaging of needle beam arrays <<
  • A. Lübcke, A. A. Andreev, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, L. Ehrentraut, and M. Schnürer, Prospects of target nanostructuring for laser proton acceleration, Sci. Rep. 7, 44030 (2017), online published: March 14, 2017, http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44030.

      >>> Structured strong fields <<< NEW!


  • A. Treffer, J. Brunne, M. Bock, S. König, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, Adaptive non-collinear autocorrelation of few-cycle pulses with an angular tunable bi-mirror, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051103 (2016).  >>> Adaptive optics for ultrashort pulses <<<
  • S. K. Das, A. Andreev, H. Messaoudi, J. Braenzel, M. Schnuerer, and R. Grunwald, Highly periodic laser-induced nanostructures on thin Ti and Cu foils for potential application in laser ion acceleration, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 113101 (2016).  >>> 60 nm LIPSS periods in thin metal foils <<<
  • A. Andreev, K. Platonov, J. Braenzel, A. Lubcke, S. K. Das, H. Messaoudi, R. Grunwald, C. Gray, E. McGlynn, and M. Schnuerer,
    Relativistic laser nano-plasmonics for effective fast particle production, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58, 014038 (2016), online published: Nov. 26, 2015.
    >>> Relativistic laser nanoplasmonics <<<
  • M. Hofmann, J. Hyyti, S. Birkholz, M. Bock, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, M. Hoffmann, T. Nagy, A. Demircan, M. Jupé, D. Ristau, U. Morgner, C. Brée, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser & G.Steinmeyer, Non-Instantaneous Polarization Dynamics in Dielectric Media, Optica 2, 151-157 (2015).
     >>> Ultrafast polarization decay time in thin films <<<  Among most downloaded papers of Optica, February 2015 !


  • R. Grunwald, T. Elsaesser, and M. Bock, Spatio-temporal coherence mapping of few-cycle vortex pulses, Sci. Rep. 4, 07148 (2014)>>> Two-dimensionally resolved nonlinear autocorrelation and travel time mapping of few-cycle vortex pulses <<<
  •  M. Musigmann, J. Jahns, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, Refractive-diffractive dispersion compensation for optical vortex beams with ultrashort pulse durations, Appl. Opt. 53, 7304-7311 (2014). >>> Theoretical analysis of vortex pulse generation with optimized dispersion compensation <<<
  •  S. K. Das, F. Guell, C. Gray, P. Das, R. Grunwald, E. Mc Glynn, ZnO nanorods for efficient third harmonic UV generation, Opt. Mat. Express 4, 701-709 (2014).  >>> Third order iFROG measurements at ZnO nanorods <<<
  • S. K. Das, F. Guell, C. Gray, P. Das, R. Grunwald, E. Mc Glynn, ZnO nanorods for efficient third harmonic UV generation: erratum, Opt. Mat. Express 4, 1243-1243 (2014).
  • M. Bock, J. Brunne, A. Treffer, S. König, U. Wallrabe, and R. Grunwald, Sub-3-cycle vortex pulses of tunable topological charge, Opt. Lett. 38, 3642-3645 (2013).  >>> Tunable MEMS spiral phase plate <<<
  • S. K. Das, H. Messaoudi, A. Debroy, E. McGlynn, and R. Grunwald, Multiphoton excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons and scaling of nanoripple formation in large bandgap materials, Opt. Mat. Express 3, 1705-1715 (2013) (Virtual Feature Issue Ultrafast Laser Modification of Materials). 
     http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/virtual_issue.cfm?vid=214   >>> Multiphoton excitation of plasmons in ZnO <<<

  • M. Bock, J. Skibina, D. Fischer, M. Bretschneider, R. Wedell, R. Grunwald, S. Burger, V. Beloglazov, and G. Steinmeyer, Nanostructured fibers for sub-10 fs optical pulse delivery, Laser & Photonics Reviews 7, 566-570 (2013), online published on April 24, 2013.  >>> Pulse transfer in PCF <<<
  • J. Brunne, M. Wapler, R. Grunwald, and U. Wallrabe, A tunable piezoelectric Fresnel mirror for high-speed lineshaping, J. Micromech. Microeng. 23115002 (2013).  http://Select.iop.org  >>> Linear MEMS axicons for ultrashort pulses <<<
  • M. Bock and R. Grunwald, Adaptive generation and diagnostics of linear few-cycle light bullets (invited paper), in: Applied Sciences (open access), Special issue: R. Kienberger (Ed.), Ultraintense Ultrashort Pulse Lasers, www.mdpi.com/journal/applsci, Appl. Sci. 3, 139-152 (2013). pdf
          >>> Multiphoton excitation of plasmons in ZnO <<<


  • Bock, J. Jahns, and R. Grunwald, Few-cycle high-contrast vortex pulses, Opt. Lett. 37, 3804-3806 (2012).                                     
    >>> Few-cycle vortex pulses from a compact setup: TOP DOWNLOADS, Opt. Lett. Sept. 2012 <<<

  • M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald, Ultrashort highly localized wavepackets, Opt. Express 20, 12563-12578 (2012). pdf                             >>> Generalization of pulsed Needle beams <<<     
  • M. Bock, S. K. Das, C. Fischer, M. Diehl, P. Börner, and R. Grunwald, Reconfigurable wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses, Opt. Lett. 37, 1154-1156 (2012).  >>> Combination of programmable Shack-Hartmann sensor and 2D autocorrelation <<<   
  • R. Grunwald and M. Bock, Spatially encoded localized wavepackets for ultrafast optical data transfer, J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12009 (2012). >>> Travel time wavefront sensing with attosecond resolution <<<   
  • R. Grunwald, M. Bock, and J. Jahns, Temporal multiplexing and shaping of few-cycle pulses with microoptical retroreflector arrays, Adv. Opt. Techn. 1, 97-99 (2012).  pdf
  • S. K. Das, C. Schwanke, A. Pfuch, W. Seeber, M. Bock, G. Steinmeyer, T. Elsaesser, and R. Grunwald, Highly efficient THG in TiO2 nanolayers for third-order pulse characterization, Opt. Express 19, 16985-16995 (2011). >>> Third order iFROG <<<   
  • M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences, J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011). >>> Double pulse laser induced periodic surface structuring <<< 


  • S. K. Das, M. Biswas, D. Byrne, M. Bock, E. McGlynn, M. Breusing, and R. Grunwald, Multiphoton-absorption induced UV luminescence of ZnO nanorods irradiated by low-energy fs-pulses, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043107 (2010), also published in: Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology 32, Issue 10 (2010); http://www.vjnano.org.
  • S. K. Das, K. Dasari, A. Rosenfeld and R. Grunwald, Extended-area nanostructuring of TiO2 with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm using a line focus, Nanotechnology 21, 155302 (2010).
  • S. K. Das, D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, M. Bock, and R. Grunwald, Femtosecond-laser-induced high spatial frequency quasi-periodic nanostructures on TiO2 surfaces, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 084912 (2009). 
  • T. Hansel, R. Grunwald, K. Reimann, J. Bonitz, C. Kaufmann, and U. Griebner, Deformation measurements of high speed MEMS with combined two-wavelength single-pulse digital holography and single phase reconstruction using sub-picosecond pulses, IEEE J. Select. Topics QE 15, 1351-1358 (2009).
  • D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 034908 (2009).
  • T. Hansel, G. Steinmeyer, R. Grunwald, C. Falldorf, J. Bonitz, C. Kaufmann, V. Kebbel, and U. Griebner, Synthesized femtosecond laser pulse source for two-wavelength contouring with simultaneously recorded digital holograms, Opt. Express 17, 2686-2695 (2009). pdf
  • M. Bock, S. K. Das, and R. Grunwald, Programmable ultrashort-pulsed flying images, Opt. Express 17, 7465-7478 (2009). pdf  
           >>> Programmable nondiffracting Needle beams <<< 


  • S. K. Das, M. Bock, C. O'Neill, R. Grunwald, K. M. Lee, H. W. Lee, S. Lee, and F. Rotermund, Efficient second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorod arrays with broadband ultrashort pulses,  Appl. Phys. Lett. (2008), 93,181112. pdf 
  • M. Bock , S. K. Das, R. Grunwald,  S. Osten , P. Staudt and G. Stibenz,  Spectral and temporal response of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151105 (2008).
  • R. Grunwald, M. Bock, V. Kebbel, S. Huferath, U. Neumann, G. Steinmeyer, G. Stibenz, J.-L. Néron, and M. Piché, Ultrashort-pulsed truncated polychromatic Bessel-Gauss beams, Opt. Expr. 16, 1077-1089 (2008).  pdf      
    >>> Spatially and temporally nondiffracting pulsed Needle beams <<<

  • T. Hansel, J. Müller, C. Falldorf, C.v.Kopylow, W. Jüptner, R. Grunwald, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Griebner, Ultrashort-pulse dual-wavelength source for digital holographic two-wavelength contouring, Appl. Phys. B 89, 513-516 (2007); invited paper. 

  • H. Knuppertz, J. Jahns, and R. Grunwald, Temporal impulse response of the Talbot interferometer, Opt. Commun. 277, 67-73 (2007).
  • R. Grunwald, S. Huferath, M. Bock, U. Neumann, and S. Langer, Angular tolerance of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors with microaxicons, Opt. Lett. 32, 1533-1535 (2007).
  • A. Niemann, C. Schmoranzer, R. Grunwald, W. Seeber, Photocatalytic active layers with self-cleaning potential for NLO applications prepared by spray pyrolysis, Europ. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Pt. B: Physics and Chemistry of Glasses 49, 55-58 (2007). 
  • R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, W. Seeber, H. Lange, J.-P. Mosnier, R. O'Haire, E. McGlynn, Growth-controlled and laser-induced nanostructures in thin nonlinear-optical ZnO layers, Europ. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Pt. B: Physics and Chemistry of Glasses 48, 134-137 (2007). >>> First reported nanoripples in ZnO <<<


  • R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, A. Rosenfeld, J. Li, and P. R. Herman, Scalable multichannel micromachining with pseudo-nondiffracting  vacuum ultraviolet beam arrays generated by thin-film axicons, Optics Letters 31, 1666-1669 (2006).
  • U. Griebner, J. Liu, S. Rivier, A. Aznar, R. Grunwald, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and V. Petrov, Laser operation of epitaxially grown Yb:KLu(WO4)2 composites with monoclinic crystalline structure, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 408-414 (2005).
  • U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, M. Schmidbauer, and W. Seeber, Second harmonic performance of a-axis oriented ZnO nanolayers on sapphire substrates, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171108 (2005); co-published in: Virtual Journal of Ultrafast Science, http://www.virtualjournals.org/vjs/notification.jsp.


  • R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Kühn, K. Mann, U. Leinhos, H. Mischke, and D. Wulff-Molder, VUV beam array generation by flat microoptical structures, Opt. Lett. 29, 977-979 (2004).
  • R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, and M. Piché, Ultrafast spatio-temporal processing with thin-film microoptics, Opt. Eng. 43, 2518-2524 (2004).
  • U. Neumann, R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and W. Seeber,  Second harmonic efficiency of ZnO nanolayers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 170-172 (2004).
  • A. Aznar, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, F. Diaz, U. Griebner, R. Grunwald, V. Petrov, Growth and laser operation of epitaxial Yb:KY(WO4)2/KY(WO4)2 composites with monoclinic structure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4313-4315 (2004).
  • R. Grunwald, U. Neumann, U. Griebner, K. Reimann, G. Steinmeyer, and V. Kebbel, Ultrashort-pulse wavefront autocorrelation, Opt. Lett. 28, 2399-2401 (2003).  >>> Combination of Shack-Hartmann sensor and 2D autocorrelation <<<
  • R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Generation and characterization of spatially and temporally localized few-cycle optical wavepackets, Phys. Rev. A 67, 0638320 (2003). 
          >>> Direct detection of femtosecond Bessel-like X-pulses <<< 


  • R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Spatially resolved small-angle non-collinear interferometric autocorrelation of ultrashort pulses with micro-axicon arrays, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923-2931 (2001).
  • U. Griebner, H. Schoennagel, J. Huschkle, and G. Erbert, Laser with guided pump and free-propagating resonator mode using diffusion-bonded rectangular channel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3505-3507 (2000).
  • R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, F. Tschirschwitz, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Generation of femtosecond Bessel beams with micro-axicon arrays, Opt. Lett. 25, 981-983 (2000).   >>> Femtosecond Bessel beam arrays <<<   
  • U. Griebner, R. Grunwald, H. Schönnagel, J. Huschke, and G. Erbert, Laser with guided pump and free-propagating resonator mode using diffusion-bonded rectangular channel waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3505-3507 (2000).


  • U. Griebner, R. Grunwald, and H. Schönnagel, Thermally bonded Yb:YAG planar waveguide laser, Opt. Commun. 164, 185-190 (1999).
  • R. Grunwald, H. Mischke, and W. Rehak, Microlens formation by thin-film deposition with mesh-shaped masks, Appl. Opt. 38, 4117-4124 (1999).
  • R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Axial beam shaping with non-spherical microlenses, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701-3707 (1998).
  •  R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Thin-film microlens arrays with non-spherical elements, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 663-671 (1997).
  • U. Griebner, R. Koch, H. Schönnagel, and R. Grunwald, Efficient laser operation with nearly diffraction-limited output from a diode-pumped heavily Nd-doped multimode fiber, Opt. Lett. 21, 266-268 (1996).
  •  R. Koch, U. Griebner, and R. Grunwald, High-Average-Power Flashlamp-Pumped Nd:Glass Fiber- Bundle Laser, Appl. Phys. B 58 403-407 (1994).
  •  R. Grunwald and U. Griebner, Segmented solid-state laser resonators with graded reflectance micro-mirror arrays, Pure Appl. Opt. 3 435-440 (1994).
  • R. Grunwald, H. Schönnagel, B. Voigt, J. Guhr, A. Mitreiter, I. Pinz, J. Bleck, Optimization of a coherent TE-CO2-laser with variable reflectivity outcouplers, Infrared Phys. 32, 109-127 (1991).
  • L. Holz, R. Koch, R. Grunwald, and H. Albrecht, Amplification and Saturation Energy of Transversely Excited CO2-Laser Gas Mixtures at 10.6 microns, Revue Roumaine de Physique 34, 719-723 (1989).


  • J. Hertz and R. Grunwald, Über die Kleinsignalmessung nach Laden­burg/Levy, Ann. Phys. 43, 201-212 (1986). 
  • R. Grunwald and J. H. Hertz, Nachweis eines optischen Gewinns nach UV-Mehrphotonen-Dissoziation von Molybdän-Hexacarbonyl, Ann. Phys. 43, 499-504 (1986). 
  • R. Grunwald, J. Lademann, H.Hohmann, and A.N. Shibanov, Generation of electronically excited radicals during the collision-free IR-multiphoton dissociation of ethylene, Khimiceskaya Fizika 4, (Moscow) 46-49 (1985) (in Russian).
  • R. König,  S. Mory, A. Rosenfeld, J. Lademann, R. Grunwald, and G. Winkelmann, Laser absorption and Fluorescence Spectro­scopy of excited molecules in nanosecond time scale, J. Mol. Struct. 114, 101-104 (1984).
  • J. Lademann, R. König, Yu. Kudryavtsev, H. Albrecht, G. Fritsch, R. Grunwald, and G. Winkelmann, Ein einfacher Excimerlaser mit automatischer Vorionisation, Exp. Technik d. Phys. 32, 235-246 (1984).
  • G. Winkelmann, R. Grunwald, J. Lademann, and R. König, Photolyse von Naphthalen mittels Excimerlaser, Z. Chem. 23, 417-418 (1983).

Popular scientific papers and newsrooms:

  • J. Lange, H. Messaoudi, S. Kumar Das, R. Grunwald, S. Schrader, M. Frohme, and F. Heinrich, Analyse komplexer biologischer Proben mittels oberflächenverstärkter Raman-Spektroskopie (SERS), TH Wildau, Wissenschaftliche Beiträge 18, 27-32 (2014).

  • C. Fischer, R. Grunwald, and M. Bock, Verbesserte Diagnostik ultrakurzer Laserpulse - Kombinierte Messung von Wellenfront und ortsaufgelöster Pulsdauer, Laser& Photonik (Hanser), 01/2013, 32-35.

  • R. Grunwald and M. Bock, Programmable micro-optics for ultrashort pulses, SPIE Newsroom (2010),


  • S. K. Das and R. Grunwald, High-speed femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring, http://nanotechweb.org/cws/article/lab/42579,  May 11 (2010).
  • R. Grunwald, M. Bock, Beamer für ultrakurze Laserpulse, Kurzmitteilung, Laser Magazin No. 2/2008, pp. 17-18, April 2008.
  • R. Grunwald, Mikrooptiken für extreme Laserparameter, Laser Technik Journal (Wiley-VCH), 2, no. 3, 51-55 (2005).
  • R. Grunwald and G. Steinmeyer, Ultrakurze Lichtblitze: Regenbögen in Raum und Zeit, Physik in unserer Zeit 35, 218-226 (2004).

Book monographs:

book microoptics

Edited books:

  •  M. Sakabe, C. Lienau, R. Grunwald (Eds.), Progress in Nonlinear Nano-optics, Springer, Heidelberg, 2015.
               http.//www.springer.com/978-3-319-12216-8     Belongs to the 25% most downloaded e-books in the relevant SpringerLink
           eBook Collection in 2016. 12,220 chapter downloads (June 06, 2017).


Book chapters:

  • A. Lübcke, M. Schnürer, L. Ehrentraut, E. McGlynn, D. Byrne, S. Lowry, R. Wehner, and R. Grunwald, Interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with nanostructure surfaces, in: K. Wandelt (Editor-in-Chief), Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, pp. 420-432, Elsevier, Kidlington, Oxford, UK (2018). NEW!
    first published in: 

    Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Elsevier, 2017, Current as of 24 August 2017, ISBN 9780124095472, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.14042-9.

  • S. K. Das, H. Messaoudi, K. Dasari, W. Seeber, and R. Grunwald, Femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in TiO2 in: M. Sakabe, C. Lienau, R. Grunwald (Eds.), Progress in nonlinear nanooptics, Springer, 2015, pp. 73-84 .

  • S. K. Das, F. Güell,  C. Gray, D. Byrne, P. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and E. McGlynn, Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanorods, in: M. Sakabe, C. Lienau, R. Grunwald (Eds.), Progress in nonlinear nanooptics, Springer, 2015, pp. 193-206.

  • H. Messaoudi, S. K. Das, J. Lange, F. Heinrich, S. Schrader, M. Frohme, and R. Grunwald, Femtosecond-laser induced periodic surface structures for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of biomolecules, in: M. Sakabe, C. Lienau, R. Grunwald (Eds.), Nonlinear nanooptics, Springer, 2015, pp. 207-222 .
  • M. Bock and R. Grunwald, Spatio-temporal localization of ultrashort-pulsed Bessel beams at extremely low light level, in: Non-diffracting waves, Eds. H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, M. Zamboni-Rached, E. Recami (eds.), Non-diffracting waves, (J. Wiley, Berlin, Oct. 2013), online published: Oct. 3, 2013 (Kindle edition).   http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527671519.ch1/summary
  • M. Bock, S. K. Das, C. Fischer, M. Diehl, P. Börner, and and R. Grunwald, Adaptive shaping of nondiffracting wavepackets for applications in ultrashort pulse diagnostics, in: Non-diffracting waves, Eds. H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, M. Zamboni-Rached, E. Recami, (J. Wiley, Berlin, Oct. 2013), online published: Oct. 3, 2013 (Kindle edition).  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527671519.ch1/summary

                   Localized waves
  • R. Grunwald, Microoptics, in: G. L. Trigg (Ed.), Digital Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Edition 2005, http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/eap/articles/eap647/frame.html, Article online posting date: July 15, 2005.
  • R. Grunwald and V. Kebbel, Micro-optical beam shaping of supershort-pulse lasers, in: J. Jahns and K.-H.Brenner (Eds.) Microoptics - from technology to applications, (Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Springer Verlag, 2004), pp. 299-311.
  • R. Grunwald, Mikrooptische Komponenten für neue Technologien, in: R.-J. Ahlers (Ed.), Das Handbuch der Bildverarbeitung, expert-verlag Malmsheim, 2000, 2.1.4-2 - 2.1.4-19.
  • R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, and R. Ehlert, Fabrication of thin-film microlens arrays by mask-shaded vacuum deposition, in S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester (Eds.), Diffractive Optics and Optical Microsystems, (Plenum Press, New York / London 1997), pp.169-177.
  • H. Albrecht, H. Hohmann, and R. Grunwald, in: D. Bäuerle (Ed.), Laser Processing and Diagnostics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984, 536.